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State propaganda and state planning of migration from the Netherlands to Argentina and Brazil, 1822-1992

International migration is the result of a decision of people to leave their country of origin and to settle elsewhere. The motives to do this can be different. The decision is not always a free choice, but can be a result of political or religious oppression. In that case migrants are refugees, of which many of them hope to return to their country of origin as soon as the political or religious situation has improved. Another motive is economic. Migrants move to another country in order to build up a new and better live in their country of destination. The decision to migrate out of economic motives is not always voluntary. In many cases people were driven by bitter poverty.

Dutch immigrants in Gonçalves Juniór, 1909. Colorized photo.

Although most migrants decided themselves to move to other countries, governments of both the countries of departure and arrival can play a role in organizing the migration process. This article focuses on the role of state propaganda and state planning of migration from the Netherlands to Brazil and Argentina. First, we focus on three migration waves in the nineteenth and the early twentieth century when propaganda from the countries of destination played an important role in boosting Dutch migration. The second part of the article focuses on the close cooperation between the Netherlands and Brazil in organizing migration after the Second World War. (meer…)