State propaganda and state planning of migration from the Netherlands to Argentina and Brazil, 1822-1992
International migration is the result of a decision of people to leave their country of origin and to settle elsewhere. The motives to do this can be different. The decision is not always a free choice, but can be a result of political or religious oppression. In that case migrants are refugees, of which many of them hope to return to their country of origin as soon as the political or religious situation has improved. Another motive is economic. Migrants move to another country in order to build up a new and better live in their country of destination. The decision to migrate out of economic motives is not always voluntary. In many cases people were driven by bitter poverty.
Although most migrants decided themselves to move to other countries, governments of both the countries of departure and arrival can play a role in organizing the migration process. This article focuses on the role of state propaganda and state planning of migration from the Netherlands to Brazil and Argentina. First, we focus on three migration waves in the nineteenth and the early twentieth century when propaganda from the countries of destination played an important role in boosting Dutch migration. The second part of the article focuses on the close cooperation between the Netherlands and Brazil in organizing migration after the Second World War.
In terms of numbers of migrants, Dutch migration played only a limited role within international migration between Europe and the New World. Between 1846 and 1932, only 250,000 people left the Netherlands for a better future overseas, whereas 18 million migrants left the British isles (including Ireland) and 10 million Italians left their country. Compared to the total population of the Netherlands, only 7 out of 10.000 inhabitants emigrated. In the same period, 122 out of 10,000 Irish inhabitants left their island! In 1889 Dutch overseas migration reached its peak: 9100 migrants – which means 20 out of 10,000 inhabitants left the country. About 4000 of them left for Argentina. It was only one of the accidental peaks within the Dutch migration to South America. Whereas the great majority of Dutch migrants left for the United States and Canada, South America played only a limited role. While 220,000 Dutch people entered the United States between 1840 and 1940, only 10,200 migrants left for Argentina and 8200 people left for Brazil.
Only after the Second World War the Netherlands were confronted with an emigration boom. The memory of the 1930’s, the war and the expectation that it would not get better soon did many people think of moving to overseas countries like Canada, Australia, New Zealand and the United States. The belief that the Netherlands were overpopulated and that a new war was imminent made the “emigration psychosis” even bigger. In an opinion poll, held in 1948, 32.5% of the respondents answered that they preferred to move to another country.
In combination with the demand for European migrants in Canada, Australia and New-Zealand this caused an unprecedented emigration peak in the Netherlands. Between 1946 and 1963 no less than 409,000 people left their country in order to settle in overseas countries. South America played only a limited role in post-War emigration from the Netherlands. About 4850 Dutchmen moved to Brazil, whereas only a few migrants went to Argentina.
On the other hand, the Dutch also played a limited role within migration to South America. Argentina received between 1861 and 1920 some 3.8 million immigrants. 47 Percent of them were Italians and 24 percent were Spanish. Only between 1888 and 1891 Argentina received a significant number of Dutch immigrants: about 4500. The same applies to Brazil, which received 5.4 million immigrants between 1820 and 1960. With at about 13,000 immigrants the Dutch seemed to be insignificant within Brazilian immigration history.
A Paradise that never was
In 1998, the Dutch-American historian Robert P. Swierenga gave a lecture with the above title during an international historical congress in Madrid. He spoke about Dutch migration to Argentina during the years 1888-1890. In his speech he concluded that this migration movement was a movement of individuals in search for work and trade and promoted by the country of destination. This is in contrast to the much larger emigration movement of the Dutch to North America. Migrants who went to North America often had family ties with already settled migrants, wanted to acquire land and had religious motives for their decision to move to the United States.
Swierenga’s conclusions also apply to two Dutch migration movements to Brazil: between 1858 and 1862 and later between 1908 and 1913. The three movements – two to Brazil and one to Argentina – have some elements in common:
- Organized propaganda from the country of destination, sometimes supported by local agents who recruited migrants with promises like free or cheap passage and the promise of land under favorable payment conditions;
- The start of direct boat connections to South America;
- Migration of individuals, without family ties or religious leaders;
- Being at the mercy of local landowners and colonial directors. Many abuses;
- Bad local facilities
- Insufficient capacities as a farmer.
The first Dutch migration movement to South America started in 1858 and ended in 1862. A total of 774 migrants left the province of Zeeland in order to settle in Brazil, together with 204 persons from the province of Gelderland and 46 from Overijssel. These emigrants from Gelderland and Overijssel together with people from the Zeeland isles Schouwen-Duiveland and Zuid-Beveland moved to the southern state Rio Grande do Sul. However, the majority of the migrants of Zealand went to the coastal state Espírito Santo.
The new nation Brazil, which had declared independence in 1822, had several reasons for promoting immigration from European countries.:
- To populate the scarcely inhabited areas in the south of Brazil, in order to create a human buffer against the neighboring countries Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay. This is why Brazil especially promoted migration to the southern states Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina and Paraná. Nowadays, these states have a population of which more is than 90 percent of European origin.
- Brazil had an urgent need for agricultural products. These products were necessary for export and to ensure a permanent food supply. Immigrants had to grow food, while the Portuguese-Brazilian population should take care of the export economy.
- Since the end of slave trade in 1850 – and even more after the abolition of slavery in 1888 – Brazil had a urgent need for labor. Immigrants had to do work previously done by slaves.
- Finally, immigration in Brazil was driven by the urge for “branqueamento”, the whitening of its population. By entering white European population groups, the ruling Portuguese-Brazilian elite wanted to reduce the native and black element in Brazilian society.
As a result, Brazil promoted European immigration. As soon as 1824 German immigrants founded settlements (“colônias”) in Rio Grande do Sul, like São Leopoldo and Três Forquilhas. In 1847 German immigrants from Rheinpreussen established the Colônia Santa Isabel in the province (later state) of Espírito Santo. During the first decades of Brazilian independence (since 1822), colonization efforts were sporadic and often not very successful. In order to facilitate immigration, the imperial government of Brazil worked out legislation. Provinces were given the authority to establish colonies, passages were no longer free, but immigrants could pay their debt by carrying out work. After four years – later two years – of staying in Brazil immigrants could acquire the Brazilian nationality.
Crucial for the development of immigration was the law of October 28, 1848 in which the imperial government made six legua quatrada of empty land (216 square kilometers) available for each procince, which was exclusively intended for colonization. Colonists could acquire ownership when they could cultivate the land within five years. Due to a financial crisis, the imperial government of Brazil could no longer carry out the yoke of immigration alone. The law transferred the responsibility for immigration to the provinces and private companies. As a result, new immigrant colonies were established in the southern provinces, like the German colonies Santa Cruz in Rio Grande do Sul and Blumenau in Santa Catarina.
Espírito Santo is a small coastal state north of Rio de Janeiro. In 1825 the priest and politician Marcelino Duarte pleaded for colonization of the smallest province of the new empire. He wanted to import European families, who had to settle on the banks of its rivers. Espírito Santo had in those days 24.000 inhabitants, half of which were Africans and the other half were ‘civilized’ Indians, half blood or Portuguese. In order to reduce the dominance of black people, the import of white Europeans was necessary. With that goal the Central Association for Colonization (in Portuguese ACC) was established in 1855. The ACC intended to import European immigrants, especially land laborers, farmers and craftsmen, who wanted to come to Brazil with help of subsidized passages.
The ACC started to make propaganda in European harbors and laid contacts with tradesmen and emigration offices like Steinmann & Co. in Antwerp. Steinman & Co. started touring in Belgium and The Netherlands in order to recruit migrants.  A propaganda leaflet spoke of free passage, a piece of mined soil of 10,000 square meters, a comfortable house, a small coffee plant, already planted corn, manioc and beans, the presence of chickens and pigs in order to start livestock farming, and all other products necessary for a first harvest. One could use the yield of the harvest for the payment of advances. The aformentioned prospects awakened “Brazilian fevers” in the villages of Zeeland. Land laborers without their own land saw a bright future before them to become farmer and to acquire their own land.
On May 20 1858, the first group of migrants from Schouwen-Duiveland and Zuid-Beveland arrived in Rio de Janeiro. They were transported to Pau d’Alto in Espírito Santo. The land allocated to them appeared to be a jungle and the promised comfortable houses were no more than huts with palm leaves as roof. The newly arrived colonists were also affected by tropical diseases. Of the 176 healthy people who arrived in Pau – about 60 of them were migrants from Zeeland – more than half had died before November 1858. Most surviving migrants from Zeeland left the colony after some years. The 73 migrants from Zeeland who settled in Colônia Militar do Urucú (nowadays Teófilo Otini) suffered the same fate. 
504 Migrants came from the western part of Zeeuws-Vlaanderen. They settled between 1859 and 1862 in Santa Leopoldina. Their settlements were called Holanda and Holandinha. These settlers were recorded by the provincial authorities of Zeeland as poor and inferior. Most of them were land laborer. These migrants also ended up in dire circumstances. They had to cut down jungle on “their” land, build houses and plant crops. In 1860, the Swiss diplomat Johann Jakob von Tschudi visited Santa Leopoldina, where also Swiss migrants had settled. According to Von Tschudi the people of Zeeland were in the most dire circumstances due to their own fault. In 1862 the migration movement stopped and for these migrants a long period of isolation started. The beautiful promises and wonderful contracts appeared to be lies and deceit. The soil was bad, was full of stones and had to be paid off. The colony had no services like a church, a school, a shop or a doctor. Several families moved away. The people who stayed were dependent on each other and managed to maintain their Zeeland identity through this isolation and solidarity. At the end of the twentieth century, some descendants of these Zeeland immigrants still spoke the original dialect of Zeeuws-Vlaanderen.
The reports of Johann Jakob von Tschudi had a negative impact on the European migration to Brazil. The government of Prussia immediately decided to forbid migration to Brazil while France followed in 1875. Belgium and the Netherlands took measures to improve the situation in their harbors. The Dutch migration act of 1861 only focused on the passage of transmigrants from abroad. The activity of local committees of supervision led to reducing abuses in the harbors of Amsterdam and Rotterdam and to the improvement of conditions on migrant ships.
Thirty years after the start of the first Dutch migration wave to South America a new peak occurred. This time Argentina was the country of destination. Like Brazil, the Argentine government was active in recruiting European immigrants. Since its independence in 1816 the Argentinian elite saw immigration from Europa as a way to develop the vast and under-populated country in order to create prosperity. Especially Italians and Spaniards settled in Argentina. In an attempt to attract more people from northern and western Europe the Argentine government set up an intensive campaign. In 1852 the Argentine statesman Juan Bautista Alberdí expressed the Argentine immigration policy with the words: “gobernar es poblar” (to govern is to populate). The constitution of 1853 favored European immigration and granted foreign residents almost all civil rights. Foreigners who wanted to work on the economic development of Argentina could in no case be denied access to the country. 
Between 1862 and 1876 agents were sent by the Argentine government to Europe in order to make propaganda. Due to little or no control on the activities of these agents the ships which arrived in Buenos Aires were full of beggars, prostitutes and criminals. In reaction, the Argentine government intervened and decided to regulate immigration. The immigration law of 1876 contained measures which regulated the care for migrants during the sea trip, the reception in Argentina and the placement of immigrants on the Argentine labor market. The Argentine government decided to get rid of corrupt agents in European harbors and to set up a new network of migration agencies instead. Under President Juárez-Celman (1886-1890) Argentina started recruiting new immigrants. The Argentine government made it possible to advance the travel costs of migrants. People who came to Argentina had to pay back their travel costs within two and half years. At the same time Argentina set up information offices in big European cities like Brussels, Paris and Madrid. In fact these information offices became recruiting agencies. One of the Argentine agents, Samuel Navarro, signed contracts with the Netherlands-American Steam Shipping Company – NASM, predecessor of the Holland America Line – which began in December 1888 with services to South America. The NASM agreed to make propaganda and to recruit passengers for Argentina.
At the moment Argentina started actively propagating and subsidizing migration, the tide was favorable for emigration. Dutch agriculture was in crisis, due to cheap grain imports from the United States. The crisis especially struck the arable farming areas in the provinces of Groningen, Friesland and Zeeland. Due to the Argentine propaganda, 4474 Dutchmen migrated to Argentina between 1888 and 1891, most of them came from these three provinces. 84 Percent of them were credit passengers. These Dutch migrants were part of the “Argentine fever”, which led to the migration of 442,500 European citizens to Argentina.
The Argentinian propaganda not only attracted farmers. About 40 percent of the migrants were craftsmen or loose workers. Because of the bad living and working conditions about one third of the immigrants died because of illness, hunger or poverty. In 1890, the Commissioner General of the Argentine Department of Immigration concluded that part of the misery was due to the credit passages granted. ‘They did not have the least capital, nor, in general, a profession suited to our country. In order to acquire a passage, they declared that they were farmers and with the aim of avoiding repayment of the advance received, they signed confessions of debts with false names.’ Everywhere in this immigration from the lowest class of society there was deceit. They were not able to contribute to the progress of the country. According to the Commisioner General two third of the credit immigration was of poor quality.
Shortly after the arrival of the first Dutch immigrants Argentina was struck by a severe economic crisis. Land owners had to dismiss their colonists, who had to search for new jobs. More than 300 desperate families from the agricultural colonies and the cities turned to the Dutch consul general Leonard van Riet with the request for a return passage to the Netherlands. The consulate only helped widows with little children. In addition, a Dutch Association was established in Buenos Aires in 1889 which gave support to about 200 Dutch families and unmarried people.
Ultimately, one of four migrants returned to the Netherlands. Many destitute immigrants settled in Buenos Aires and Rosario. In Tres Arroyos, south of Buenos Aires, Dutch immigrants established their own community. Other Dutch communities disappeared after a few years. Nowadays, Tres Arroyos is still the only existing Dutch settlement in Argentina.
The “Argentine fever” stopped as quickly as it started. The Argentine government stopped subsidizing passages and the interest in migration quickly diminished due to alarming newspaper reports. And due to the reduced interest in Argentina the NASM stopped the boat connection with Buenos Aires in 1890. After 1890 Argentina remained out of favor as a destination for Dutch migrants. Only Tres Arroyos attracted new Dutch immigrants in the 1920’s and 1930’s.
The transition of the empire into a republic in 1889 created new perspectives for migration to Brazil. During the first 25 years of the republic new migration laws came into being. A significant part of these laws was issued during the first years of the republic. On December 14, 1889 it was determined that all foreigners who already lived in Brazil before the start of the republic on November 15, 1889, could acquire the Brazilian nationality. Foreigners who stayed in the country for more than two years after this decree, were granted the same right. Half a year later, rules were established for the establishment of colonies. Within a colony the plots of land intended for immigrants had to be between five and fifteen hectares and the colonies were not allowed to be more than thirteen kilometers away from larger settlements or train stations. The landowner was obliged to provide the settlers with the necessary tools, seeds and food for at least nine months. The land and tools had to be paid off within ten years, starting from the second year of settlement. If the settler was late with payment for two consecutive years, the owner had the right to remove him from the ground. In 1894 a standard contract for the acquisition of land by immigrants was introduced.
The Brazilian government also established an institution which had to promote immigration. In 1892 a General Agency for European Immigration was founded with its head office in Brussels. The agency had to conclude contracts concerning the transport of migrants to Brazil. It also had to make propaganda for migration. In 1907 the Brazilian congress established the Brazilian Propaganda and Expansion Service Abroad. In 1908, one of the representatives of this service visited Belgium and the Netherlands in order to establish an information agency. The propaganda and information service wanted to give migrants free passages to Brazil, but this was forbidden by the Belgian emigration commissioner, Eugène Venesoen. That’s why the propaganda in Belgium had little success. In 1908 and 1909 only 205 and 288 Belgians went to South America.
The situation in the Netherlands was rather different. In contrast to Belgium, the provision of free passages was not prohibited. Moreover, the Brazilian propagandists were lucky that in 1907 the Koninklijke Hollandsche LLoyd started with a passenger connection from Amsterdam to South America. The combination of free passages, the perspective of land at attractive payment terms and the availability of a direct boat connection had immediate success. In 1908 and 1909 respectively 1037 and 1036 Dutch emigrants left for Brazil. Most of them came from the province of South Holland. Among them were boat workers who were fired in 1907 during a strike in the port of Rotterdam. Although they declared to be farmers, this was only the case for a small minority. According to a fellow migrant, the boat workers were even able to ‘plant boiled beans’. That is why the migration could only led to failure.
The Dutch migrants ended up in colonies in the southern states of Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul. Most of them stayed only for a short time in these colonies. Soon, the Dutch ambassador in Rio de Janeiro received requests for returning to the Netherlands. Between 1910 and 1913, the Dutch government granted 580 return passages to migrants. In addition, 327 Dutchmen moved from Rio Grande do Sul to Argentina in 1909, while others settled in Brazilian cities. Due to the negative reports and the rapid departure of many immigrants from the colonies, the Brazilian government stopped in 1910 issuing free passages. For the Dutch government, the negative messages were reason to advise anyone without farming experience or without enough financial means, not to emigrate to Brazil. As a result, Dutch migration to Brazil decreased rapidly.
After this decline, Dutch migration to Brazil stabilized around 250 persons a year. Among the migrants were also some people who had returned to the Netherlands thanks to financial support of the Dutch government. They wanted to return to Brazil because they saw possibilities. Together with some new migrants, they stood at the cradle of the oldest Dutch group settlement in Brazil, Carambeí. This colony started in 1911 after a few Dutch people from the failed colony of Gonçalves Juníor managed to acquire land from the Brazil Railway Company. Their positive stories prompted family members and fellow villagers to migrate to Brazil.
After the failure of the migration to Brazil, migration to Argentina grew again. This time the majority of the migrants were businessmen and merchants. Only a small minority were farmers and unskilled workers. This was also the case in the 1920’s, when 1200 people moved from the Netherlands to Argentina. Some farmers settled in the Dutch colony Tres Arroyos.
Organized migration to Brazil after 1945
During the Second World War, when the Netherlands were occupied by Nazi-Germany, a discussion started in circles around the Dutch government in exile in London on post-war emigration policy. A study committee concluded that there were good prospects for farmers and industrial workers in South America, especially Brazil. This country had need for agricultural products that could be sold in the fast-growing cities. Before the Dutch farmers could settle in Brazil, land had to be purchased and guidance had to be provided. According to the study committee, the immigrants should not be left to their own devices, but had to be assisted and advised in order to prevent great difficulties.
Another study committee in London advised to emigrate in a groups. These groups, consisting of families with an equal social and religious background should settle as small communities. One of the possible destinations was Brazil. After the end of the Second World War, the Dutch government started to develop a new emigration policy. The Netherlands Emigration Foundation [Stichting Landverhuizing Nederland, SLN], which was founded in 1931, became the executive organization for this emigration policy. Established as a mixed organization in which the government and private organizations worked together, it became now an executive body of the government. It appointed emigration attaché’s in potential destination countries, among which were Brazil and Argentina.
At the same time, Dutch farmer’s organizations started to explore the emigration opportunities for their members. At the end of 1946, the Catholic Dutch Farmers and Gardeners Association (KNBTB) sent a research committee to Brazil to explore the possibilities for settling Dutch roman catholic farmers. The exploration, in which there was close collaboration with the Dutch emigration attaché and Brazilian government authorities, resulted in the foundation of Holambra in 1948, a Dutch group settlement north of São Paulo. After Holambra, Castrolanda was founded in 1951, a group settlement of Dutch protestant farmers in the state of Paraná, some 30 kilometers away from the existing Dutch settlement Carambeí. Again, Dutch government authorities worked closely together with private organizations.
Unlike before 1940, the Dutch – government authorities and private organizations – took the initiative in realizing migration projects in Brazil. They closely cooperated with Brazilian national and regional government authorities, who made loans available for Dutch migration projects. The emigration law of 1952 not only defined how emigration was organized in the Netherlands, but also confirmed the active emigration policy of the Dutch government. Public and private emigration organizations provided information to potential emigrants, organized their departure and provided departure grants.
In addition, the Netherlands and Brazil signed a migration treaty in 1950. This treaty regulated the recruitment, transport and settlement of Dutch migrants in Brazil. Farmers could, among other things, transport livestock and agricultural machinery. This was necessary in the first years after the war because the Netherlands imposed restrictions on the export of financial resources. The Brazilian government gave migrants transport credits and gave those who established themselves as small farmers the financing of their business and the cost of living during the first year. Brazilian government authorities also provided technical assistance and medical care. In later years, the colony declaration made it possible for Dutch migrants to acquire a permanent residence status in Brazil. In such a statement, the management of the cooperative of a Dutch group settlement indicated that the immigrant in question was going to establish himself as a farmer in their community.
During the first years of organized Dutch group settlement in Brazil, the Dutch – government authorities and private organizations – took the initiative in realizing group settlements in Brazil. Brazilian government authorities supported the initiatives by making loans available or mediating in the purchase of land. This was particularly the case with Holambra.
However, Dutch interference did not stop after the start in 1948. Already after a year, in August 1949, the leader of the colony, Geert Heijmeijer, asked the Dutch government for temporary financial support. Because the emigration treaty had not yet been concluded, Holambra could not profit from the financial advantages, as Heijmeijer argued. The reaction of the Dutch government was negative. In December 1949 Heijmeijer visited the Netherlands again with the intention to acquire a new credit of 2,8 million Dutch guilders. This time, the Dutch government decided to send a commission inquiry committee to Brazil. The conclusions were devastating: Holambra was unable to pay off its debts. With the means at the disposal of the colony it was impossible to realize a profitable exploitation of the colony. In response to these conclusions, the Dutch government decided to intervene.
Since the liquidation of the colony would damage the Dutch appearance in Brazil, the Dutch government decided to guarantee the loan requested by Holambra. To supervise the spending of the money, a Dutch government commissioner was sent to Brazil: Charles Hogenboom. He became in fact the new leader of the group settlement. Hogenboom issued a drastic reorganization in which he was not afraid to put aside those who did not cooperate. His performance led to conflicts because of which half of the emigrants left, either to other locations in Brazil or back to the Netherlands. After the end of the internal crisis in Holambra, Hogenboom started building up contacts with Brazilian government authorities. He used his Brazilian connections when he worked from 1957 on the foundation of a new colony, Holambra II. Holambra II started after the purchase of the Fazenda das Posses in 1961. While the first Holambra started in 1948 as a Dutch initiative, the colonization of Holambra II was a Brazilian initiative in which the Dutch authorities only had to deliver new immigrants.
Holambra II and the protestant colony of Arapotí, which started in 1959, were the last two group settlements of Dutch farmers that were the result of close Dutch-Brazilian cooperation. Although new group settlements were founded in the 1970’s and 1980’s, these were the result of spontaneous colonization. The involvement of Dutch and Brazilian authorities was limited. The existing group settlements helped new Dutch immigrants by issuing colony declarations.
In the 1990’s Dutch government stopped facilitating overseas migration. In addition, the Dutch also decided to cancel the migration treaty with Brazil. Dutchmen who want to move to Brazil must arrange their migration themselves. The Brazilian authorities, like those of Canada and Australia, also imposed requirements on incoming emigrants. The time that almost everyone was welcome now lays far behind us.
From the 19th century, Dutch migration to South America was largely the result of initiatives by the governments of Brazil and Argentina. These governments were eager to populate their country by accommodating European immigrants. They sent propaganda committees and recruitment agents to Europe with great promises and attractive subsidies. Unlike the European migration to North America, was the migration to South America was a migration of individuals. As a result, they could not build on a network of family members or acquaintances who had settled before. Due to the poor conditions in which they ended up in Brazil and Argentina, their migration became a failure.
The role of the Dutch government authorities was limited to providing counterpropaganda. Only between 1910 and 1913 the government granted return passages to migrants who wanted to return to the Netherlands. Until 1945 the Dutch government did not pursue an active emigration policy. This changed after the end of the Second World War. In close cooperation with Brazilian government authorities, Dutch group settlements like Holambra, Castrolanda and Arapotí were established in the 1940’s and 1950’s. A migration treaty regulated the recruitment, transport and settlement of Dutch migrants in Brazil. This treaty facilitated migration until the 1990’s. Nowadays migrants have to organize their settlement themselves.
Lezing gehouden op 9 april 2019 op de conferentie “ENCUENTRO 2019, The Low Countries and Latin America from the 19th Century and Present. Interdisicplinary Perspectives on Shared Histories and Sources”, op het KADOC, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
 B.P. Hofstede, Thwarted Exodus. Post-War Overseas Migration from the Netherlands (‘s-Gravenhage 1964), 13.
 Y. Saueressig-Schreuder, R.P. Swierenga, Catholic Emigration from the southern Provinces of the Netherlands in the Nineteenth Century (Voorburg 1982), 5.
 M. Smits, Holambra. De moeizame beginjaren van een stukje Nederland in Brazilië (Nijmegen 2016), 13.
 Ibid, 14.
 E. Koops, Dynamiek van een emigratiecultuur. De emigratie van gereformeerden, hervormden en katholieken naar Noord-Amerika in vergelijkend perspectief (Hilversum 2010), 106.
 S.L. Baily, Immigrants in the Lands of Promise: Italians in Buenos Aires and New York City, 1870 to 1914 (Ithaca N.J. 1999) 54.
 Verzameling van consulaire en andere verslagen en berichten over nijverheid, handel en scheepvaart, no. 196 (1893), 93.
 Smits, Holambra, 30.
 R.P. Swierenga, “A Paradise That Never Was:” Dutch Immigrants in Argentina”. Twelfth International Economic History Conference, Madrid, Spain, August 28, 1998 (Session C-31). https://www.swierenga.com/Madrid_pap.html (seen February 27, 2019).
 C. Milh, Belgische emigratie naar de Republiek van Brazilië van 1889 tot 1914. Scriptie ingediend tot het behalen van de graad van licentiaat Geschiedenis. Rijksuniversiteit Gent, 2007, 43.
 T. Roos and M. Eshuis, “Op een dag zullen ze ons vinden”. Een Zeeuwse geschiedenis in Brazilië (Barneveld 2008), 11-12.
 Ibidem, 15.
 Ibidem, 22-26, 31.
 F. Buysse, De Zeeuwse gemeenschap van Holanda, Brazilië (1858-1982). Een antropologische studie over integratie en identiteit. Doctoraalscriptie Culturele Antropologie KU Nijmegen 1984 (Bijdragen tot de geschiedenis van West-Zeeuws-Vlaanderen, no. 13), 23-25.
 J.J. von Tschudi, Reisen durch Südamerika. Dritter Band (Leipzig 1867), 35.
 L. Vloeberghs, ‘De Belgische emigratie naar Argentinië, 1888-1889, in: Brood en rozen (2016), no. 3, 8.
 I. Vanhoutte, Belgische emigranten naar Argentinië tussen 1896 en 1914. De migratiedynamiek onder de loep genomen. Onderzoekspaper tot het behalen van de graad Master in de Geschiedenis, Rijksuniversiteit Gent, 2019, 12.
 Ibidem, 13.
 Vloeberghs, ‘De Belgische emigratie naar Argentinië’, 9-11.
 Verzameling van consulaire en andere verslagen, no. 196 (1893), 93.
 C. Milh, Belgische emigratie, 60-61.
 Ibidem, 75-76.
 Ibidem, 34.
 W. Schenkeveld, ‘Red mij voordat mijn hele gezin is gestorven. De rampzalige emigratie naar Brazilië, 1908-1909’, Geschiedenis Magazine 46 (oktober 1911), no. 7, 22.
 Smits, Holambra, 25.
 Ibidem, 19, 26.
 C.J.M. Wijnen, De Nederlandse agrarische groepsvestigingen in Brazilië (Den Haag 2001), 16.